The Kingdom of Saba or Sheba is mentioned in the Old Testament and the Koran as a wealthy kingdom, mostly known because of Makeda, the famous Queen of Saba, who visited King Solomon.
The real expansion of this kingdom is unknown. There are hypotheses which indicate that it was located in the south of the Arabic Peninsula (modern day Yemen).
The oldest temple, known as the temple of the Queen of Saba, dates back to the 1st century B.C. The kingdom flourished through trade of goods, both in Asia and Africa, including coffee of the Ethiopian region of Kaffa. Apparently it was a matriarchal society in which political power passed from mothers to daughters.